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Top 3 Important Topics in Javascript and Node.JS for Exam Preparation

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Published by jetbi
05 June 2023
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JavaScript and Node.js are powerful programming languages widely used for web development and server-side applications. When preparing for an exam on JavaScript and Node.js, it's useful to focus on the most important topics that will help you build a strong foundation and ensure success. While there are many important topics to cover in these languages, let's explore some of the most crucial ones that every developer should understand thoroughly. These topics include inheritance and its types, export and import in Node.js, commands in Node.js and different modules, array methods, destructuring, and Date/Time methods.

 

Inheritance 

1. Inheritance is a fundamental concept in object-oriented programming (OOP) that allows objects to inherit properties and methods from other objects. In JavaScript, inheritance is implemented using prototypes, which form a prototype chain.

A prototype is an object from which other objects inherit properties and methods. Each object in JavaScript has an internal link to its prototype called [[Prototype]] or __proto__. When accessing a property or method on an object, if it doesn't exist on the object itself, JavaScript looks for it in its prototype, and if not found there, it continues up the prototype chain until the property or method is found or until the end of the chain is reached.

 

JavaScript offers two main ways to implement inheritance:

1. Prototype-based Inheritance:

JavaScript uses prototype-based inheritance, which means that objects can directly inherit from other objects. Every object in JavaScript has an associated prototype object, and the prototype object can have its prototype, creating a chain of objects linked by their prototypes.

To establish inheritance, we can create a constructor function and define properties and methods on its prototype.  Here's an example:

function Animal(name) {
  this.name = name;
}

Animal.prototype.speak = function() {
  console.log(this.name + ' makes a sound.');
};

function Dog(name) {
  Animal.call(this, name);
}

Dog.prototype = Object.create(Animal.prototype);
Dog.prototype.constructor = Dog;

Dog.prototype.bark = function() {
  console.log(this.name + ' barks.');
};

const dog = new Dog('Max');
dog.speak(); // Output: Max makes a sound.
dog.bark(); // Output: Max barks.


2. Class-based Inheritance (ES6):

With the introduction of ECMAScript 2015 (ES6), JavaScript introduced class syntax to facilitate class-based inheritance, making it more familiar to developers coming from other programming languages.

class Animal {
  constructor(name) {
    this.name = name;
  }

  speak() {
    console.log(this.name + ' makes a sound.');
  }
}

class Dog extends Animal {
  bark() {
    console.log(this.name + ' barks.');
  }
}

const dog = new Dog('Max');
dog.speak(); // Output: Max makes a sound.
dog.bark(); // Output: Max barks.

In the example above, the Animal class defines the speak method, and the Dog class extends Animal using the extends keyword. The bark method is added to the Dog class.

Both prototype-based inheritance and class-based inheritance in JavaScript allow objects to inherit properties and methods from other objects, enabling code reuse and creating hierarchical relationships between objects.

It's important to understand how inheritance works in JavaScript, as it forms the basis for building more complex object-oriented structures and enables the creation of reusable and maintainable code.

 

Date/Time methods

The next topic I want to review is the set of Date/Time methods and functionalities to work with dates, and times, and manipulate them according to various requirements.

Here are some important Date/Time methods in JavaScript:

1. Date Object Creation:

To work with dates, you can create a Date object using the new Date() constructor. Here are a few ways to create Date objects:

const currentDate = new Date(); // Current date and time

const specificDate = new Date('2023-05-27'); // Specific date and time

const customDate = new Date(2023, 4, 27, 10, 30, 0); // Year, month (0-11), day, hour, minute, second

 

2. Date Formatting and Extraction:

JavaScript also provides methods to format and extract specific components from Date objects:

const date = new Date();

const year = date.getFullYear(); // Full year (e.g., 2023)
const month = date.getMonth(); // Month (0-11)
const day = date.getDate(); // Day of the month (1-31)
const hours = date.getHours(); // Hour (0-23)
const minutes = date.getMinutes(); // Minute (0-59)
const seconds = date.getSeconds(); // Second (0-59)
const milliseconds = date.getMilliseconds(); // Millisecond (0-999)

const formattedDate = date.toDateString(); // Formatted date string (e.g., "Sun May 28 2023")
const formattedTime = date.toTimeString(); // Formatted time string (e.g., "12:30:45 GMT+0530 (India Standard Time)")

 

3. Date Formatting Libraries:

JavaScript also has various libraries like Moment.js, Luxon, and Day.js that provide additional functionalities and simplify date formatting, parsing, and manipulation. These libraries offer more advanced features and enhanced syntax for handling Date/Time operations.

It's important to note that JavaScript's Date object is based on the underlying system's local time, and its behavior may vary depending on the user's time zone and the browser environment.

By utilizing these Date/Time methods and functions, you can perform a wide range of operations, including creating, formatting, extracting, comparing, and manipulating dates and times in JavaScript.

 

Node.JS

The last important topic that I want to explore today is Node.JS and its most useful methods. Node.js provides a wide range of built-in methods and functions that allow developers to perform various tasks and operations in the Node.js runtime environment. Here are some important Node.js methods:

1. File System Operations:

Node.js offers several methods to interact with the file system, such as reading, writing, and manipulating files and directories. Some commonly used methods include:

  • fs.readFile(path, options, callback): Reads the contents of a file asynchronously.
  • fs.writeFileSync(file, data, options): Writes data to a file synchronously.
  • fs.readdir(path, options, callback): Reads the contents of a directory asynchronously.
  • fs.mkdir(path, options, callback): Creates a new directory asynchronously.
  • fs.rename(oldPath, newPath, callback): Renames a file or directory asynchronously.

 

2. HTTP Operations:

Node.js includes functionality for building web servers and making HTTP requests. Some commonly used methods include:

  • http.createServer([options], callback): Creates an HTTP server instance.
  • http.get(url, options, callback): Makes an HTTP GET request to the specified URL.
  • http.post(url, options, callback): Makes an HTTP POST request to the specified URL.

 

3. Module Operations:

Node.js supports a modular architecture, and the following methods assist in managing modules and their dependencies:

  • require(module): Loads a module into the current script.
  • module.exports: Exports objects, functions, or values from a module.

exports: An alternative syntax for exporting values from a module.

  • npm install package_name: Installs a Node.js package from the npm registry.
  • npm init: Initializes a new Node.js project with a package.json file.

These are just a few examples of the many methods available in Node.js. The Node.js documentation provides detailed information on all built-in modules and their respective methods, offering comprehensive guidance for performing various tasks in a Node.js application.
 

Conclusion

By focusing on these three topics, developers can build a solid foundation in JavaScript and Node.js, preparing themselves for success in exams and real-world scenarios. Remember to practice coding examples, explore additional resources, and refer to the official documentation to deepen your understanding of these topics. With dedication and consistent effort, you'll be well-prepared for any JavaScript and Node.js exam.


Daria Daneika
Certified Salesforce Developer
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